This review is analysing deployed and actively used workload schedulers’ solutions, and presents a taxonomy in which those systems are divided into several hierarchical groups based on their architecture and design. While other taxonomies do exist (e.g. Krauter et al., 2002; Yu and Buyya, 2005; Pop et al., 2006; Smanchat and Viriyapant, 2015; Rodriguez and Buyya, 2017; Zakarya and Gillam, 2017; Tyagi and Gupta, 2018), this review has focused on the key design factors that affect the throughput and scalability of a given solution, as well as the incremental improvements which bettered such an architecture. A special attention is given to Google’s Borg which is one of the most advanced and published systems of this kind.
Figure below visualises how the schedulers’ groups are split. Each of these groups is separately discussed in the sections below.
1. Operating System Schedulers
The Operating System (OS) Scheduler, also known as a ‘short-term scheduler’ or ‘CPU scheduler’, works within very short time frames, i.e. time-slices. During scheduling events, an algorithm must examine planned tasks and assign them appropriate CPU times (Bulpin, 2005; Arpaci-Dusseau and Arpaci-Dusseau, 2015). This requires schedulers to use highly optimised algorithms with very small overheads. Process schedulers have the difficult task of maintaining a delicate balance between responsiveness (minimum latency) and throughput. This is generally achieved by prioritising the execution of processes with a higher sleep/processing ratio (Pabla, 2009).
At the time of writing, the most advanced strategies also take into consideration the latest CPU core where the process ran the previous time. This is known as ‘Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) awareness’, where the aim is to reuse the same CPU cache memory wherever possible (Blagodurov et al., 2010). The memory access latency differences can be very substantial, for example ca. 3-4 cycles for L1 cache, ca. 6-10 cycles for L2 cache and ca. 40-100 cycles for L3 cache (Drepper, 2007). NUMA awareness also involves prioritising the act of choosing a real idle core which must occur prior to its logical SMT sibling, also known as ‘Hyper-Threading (HT) awareness’. Given this, NUMA awareness is a crucial element in the design of modern OS schedulers. With a relatively high data load to examine in a short period of time, implementation needs to be strongly optimised to ensure faster execution.
OS Schedulers tend to provide only a very limited set of tuneable parameters, wherein the access to modify them is not straightforward. Some of the parameters can change only during the kernel compilation process and require rebooting, such as compile-time options CONFIG_FAIR_USER_SCHED and CONFIG_FAIR_CGROUP_SCHED, or on the fly using the low-level Linux kernel’s tool ‘sysctl’.
1.1. Cooperative Multitasking
Early multitasking Operating Systems, such as Windows 3.1x, Windows 95, 96 and Me, Mac OS prior to X, adopted a concept known as Cooperative Multitasking or Cooperative Scheduling (CS). In early implementations of CS, applications voluntarily ceded CPU time to one another. This was later supported natively by the OS, although Windows 3.1x used a non-pre-emptive scheduler which did not interrupt the program, wherein the program needed to explicitly tell the system that it no longer required the processor time. Windows 95 introduced a rudimentary pre-emptive scheduler, although this was for 32-bit applications only (Hart, 1997). The main issue in CS is the hazard caused by the poorly designed program. CS relies on processes regularly giving up control to other processes in the system, meaning that if one process consumes all the available CPU power, it causes all the systems to hang.
1.2. Single Queue
Prior to Linux kernel version 2.4, the simple Circular Queue (CQ) algorithm was used to support the execution of multiple processes on the available CPUs. The selection of the next process to run was based on a Round Robin policy (Shreedhar, 1995). In kernel version 2.2, processes were further split into non-real/real-time categories, and scheduling classes were introduced. This algorithm was replaced by O(n) scheduler in Linux kernel versions 2.4-2.6. In O(n), processor time is divided into epochs, and within each epoch every task can execute up to its allocated time slice before being pre-emptied. The time slice is given to each task at the start of each epoch, and is based on the task’s static priority added to half of any remaining time-slices from the previous epoch (Bulpin, 2005). Thus, if a task does not use its entire time slice in the current epoch, it can execute for longer in the next epoch. O(n) scheduler requires iteration through all currently planned processes during a scheduling event (Jones, 2009) – this can be seen as a weakness, especially for multi-core processors.
Between Linux kernel versions 2.6-2.6.23 came the implementation of the O(1) scheduler. O(1) further splits the processes list into active and expired arrays. Here, the arrays are switched once all the processes from the active array have exhausted their allocated time and have been moved to the expired array. The O(1) algorithm analyses the average sleep time of the process, with more interactive tasks being given higher priority in order to boost system responsiveness. The calculations required are complex and subject to potential errors, where O(1) may cause non-interactive behaviour from an interactive process (Wong et al., 2008; Pabla, 2009).
1.3. Multilevel Queue
With Q(n) and O(1) algorithms failing to efficiently support the interactivity of applications, the design of OS Scheduler evolved into a multilevel queue in which repeatedly sleeping (interactive) processes are pushed to the top of queue and executed more frequently. At the same time, background processes are pushed down and run less frequently, although for longer periods.
Perhaps the most widespread scheduler algorithm is Multilevel Feedback Queue (MLFQ), which is implemented in all modern versions of Windows NT (2000, XP, Vista, 7 and Server), Mac OS X, NetBSD and Solaris kernels (up to version 2.6, when it was replaced with O(n) scheduler). MLFQ was first described in 1962 in a system known as the Compatible Time-Sharing System (Corbató et al., 1962). Fernando Corbató was awarded the Turing Award by the ACM in 1990 ‘for his pioneering work organizing the concepts and leading the development of the general-purpose, large-scale, time-sharing and resource-sharing computer systems, CTSS and Multics’. In MLFQ, jobs are organised into a set of queues Q0, Q1, …, Qi wherein a job is promoted to a higher queue if it does not finish within 2i time units. The algorithm processes the job from the front of the lowest queue at all times, meaning that short processes are given preference. While having a very poor worst-case scenario, MLFQ turns out to be very efficient in practice (Becchetti et al., 2006).
Staircase Scheduler (Corbet, 2004), Staircase Deadline Scheduler (Corbet, 2007), Brain F. Scheduler (Groves et al., 2009) and Multiple Queue Skiplist Scheduler (Kolivas, 2016) constitute a line of successive schedulers developed by Con Kolivas since 2004 which are based on a design of Fair Share Scheduler from Kay and Lauder (1988). None of these schedulers have been merged into the source code of mainstream kernels and they are available only as experimental ‘-ck’ patches. Although the concept behind those schedulers is similar to MLFQ, the implementation details differ significantly. The central element is a single, ranked array of processes for each CPU (‘staircase’). Initially, each process (P1, P2, …) is inserted at the rank determined by its base priority; the scheduler then picks up the highest ranked process (P) and runs it. When P has used up its time slice, it is reinserted into the array but at a lower rank, where it will continue to run but at a lower priority. When P exhausts its next time-slice, its rank is lowered again. P then continues until it reaches the bottom of the staircase, at which point it is moved up to one rank below its previous maximum, and is assigned two time-slices. When P exhausts these two time-slices, it is reinserted once again in the staircase at a lower rank. When P once again reaches the bottom of the staircase, it is assigned another time-slice and the cycle repeats. P is also pushed back up the staircase if it sleeps for a predefined period. This means that interactive tasks which tend to sleep more often should remain at the top of the staircase, while CPU-intensive processes should continuously expend more time-slices but at a lower frequency. Additionally, each rank level in the staircase has its own quota, and once the quota is expired all processes on that rank are pushed down.
Most importantly, Kolivas’ work introduced the concept of ‘fairness’, in which each process gets a comparable share of CPU time to run, proportional to the priority. If the process spends much of its time waiting for I/O events, then its spent CPU time value is low, meaning that it is automatically prioritised for execution. This means that interactive tasks which spend most of their time waiting for user input get execution time when they need it. This represents the notion of ‘sleeper fairness’. This design also prevents a situation in which the process is ‘starved’, i.e. never executed.
1.4. Tree-based Queue
While the work of Con Kolivas has never been merged into the mainstream Linux kernel, it has introduced the key concept of ‘fairness’, which is the crucial feature of the design of most current OS schedulers. At the time of writing, Linux kernel implements Completely Fair Scheduler (CFS), which was developed by Ingo Molnár and introduced in kernel version 2.6.23. A central element in this algorithm is a self-balancing red-black tree structure in which processes are indexed by spent processor time. CFS implements the Weighted Fair Queueing (WFQ) algorithm, in which the available CPU time-slices are split between processes in proportion to their priority weights (‘niceness’). WFQ is based on the idea of the ‘ideal processor’, meaning that each process should have an equal share of CPU time adjusted for their priority and total CPU load (Jones, 2009; Pabla, 2009).
Lozi et al. (2016) offers an in-depth explanation of the algorithm’s workings, noting potential issues regarding the CFS approach. The main criticism revolves around the four problematic areas:
- Group Imbalance – the authors’ experiments have shown that not every core of their 64-core machine is equally loaded: some cores run either only one process or no processes at all while the rest of the cores were overloaded. It was found that the scheduler was not balancing the load because of the hierarchical design and complexity of the load tracking metric. To limit the complexity of the scheduling algorithm, the CPU cores are grouped into scheduling groups, i.e. nodes. When an idle core attempts to steal work from another node, it compares only the average load of its node with that of its victim’s node. It will steal work only if the average load of its victim’s group is higher than its own. This creates inefficiency since idle cores will be concealed by their nodes’ average load.
- Scheduling Group Construction – this concern relates to the way scheduling groups are constructed which is not adapted to modern NUMA machines. Applications in Linux can be pinned to a subset of available cores. CFS might assign the same cores to multiple scheduling groups with those groups then being ranked by distance, for example nodes one hop apart, nodes two hops apart and so on. This feature was designed to increase the probability that processes would remain close to their original NUMA node. However, this could result in the application being pinned to particular cores which are separated by more than one hop, with work never being migrated outside the initial core. This might mean that an application uses only one core.
- Overload-on-Wakeup – this problem occurs when a process goes to sleep on a particular node and is then awoken by a process on the same node. In such a scenario, only cores in this scheduling group will be considered to run this process. The aim of this optimisation is to improve cache utilisation by running a process close to the waker process, meaning that there is the possibility of them sharing the last-level memory cache. However, the might be the scheduling of a process on a busy core when there are idle cores in alternative nodes, resulting in the severe under-utilisation of the machine.
- Missing Scheduling Domains – this is the result of a line of code omission while refactoring the Linux kernel source code. The number of scheduling domains is incorrectly updated when a particular code is disabled and then enabled, and a loop exits early. As a result, processes can be run only on the same scheduling group as their parent process.
Lozi et al. (2016) have provided a set of patches for the above issues, and have presented experimental results after applying fixes. They have also provided a set of tools on their site which could be used to detect those glitches early in the Linux kernel lifecycle. Moreover, it has been argued that the sheer number of optimisations and modifications implemented into CFS scheduler changed the initially simple scheduling policy into one which was very complex and bug-prone – as of 12th February 2019, there were 780 commits to CFS source code (‘fair.c’ file in github.com/torvalds/linux repository) since November 2011. As such, an alternative approach is perhaps required, such as a scheduler architecture based on pluggable components. This work clearly demonstrates the immerse complexity of scheduling solutions catering to the complexities of modern hardware.
2. Cluster Schedulers
Distributed computing differs from traditional computing in many ways. The sheer physical size of the system itself means that thousands of machines may be involved, with thousands of users being served and millions of API calls or other requests needing processed. While responsiveness and low overheads tend to be the focus of process schedulers, the focus of cluster schedulers is to focus upon high throughput, fault-tolerance and scalability. Cluster schedulers usually work with queues of jobs spanning to hundreds of thousands, and indeed sometimes even millions of jobs. They also seem to be more customised and tailored to the needs of organisation which is using them.
Cluster schedulers usually provide complex administration tools with a wide spectrum of tuneable parameters and flexible workload policies. All configurable parameters can usually be accessed through configuration files or via the GUI interface. However, it has been documented that site administrators only rarely stray from a default configuration (Etsion and Tsafrir, 2005). The most used scheduling algorithm is simply a First-Come-First-Serve (FCFS) strategy with backfilling optimisation.
The most common issues which cluster schedulers must deal with are:
- Unpredictable and varying load (Moreno et al., 2013);
- Mixed batch jobs and services (ibid.);
- Complex policies and constraints (Adaptive Computing, 2002);
- Fairness (ibid.);
- A rapidly increasing workload and cluster size (Isard et al., 2007);
- Legacy software (ibid.);
- Heterogeneous nodes with a varying level of resources and availability (Thain et al., 2005);
- The detection of underperforming nodes (Zhang et al., 2014);
- Issues related to fault-tolerance (ibid.) and hardware malfunctions (Gabriel et al., 2004).
Another interesting challenge, although one which is rarely tackled by commercial schedulers, is minimising total power consumption. Typically, idle machines consume around half of their peak power (McCullough et al., 2011). Therefore, the total power consumed by a Data Centre can be lowered by concentrating tasks on a reduced number of machines and powering down the remaining nodes (Pinheiro et al., 2001; Lang and Patel, 2010).
The proposed grouping of Cluster schedulers loosely follows the taxonomy presented in Schwarzkopf et al. (2013).
2.1. Monolithic Scheduler
The earliest Cluster schedulers were built with a centralised architecture in which a single scheduling policy allocated all incoming jobs. The tasks would be picked from the head of the queue and scheduled on system nodes in a serial manner by an allocation loop. Examples of centralised schedulers include Maui (Jackson et al., 2001) and its successor Moab (Adaptive Computing, 2015), Univa Grid Engine (Gentzsch, 2001), Load Leveler (Kannan et al., 2001), Load Sharing Facility (Etsion and Tsafrir, 2005), Portable Batch System (Bode et al., 2000) and its successor TORQUE (Klusáček et al., 2013), Alibaba’s Fuxi (Zhang et al., 2014), Docker Swarm (Naik, 2016), Kubernetes (Vohra, 2017) and several others.
Monolithic schedulers implement a wide array of policies and algorithms, such as FCFS, FCFS with backfilling and gang scheduling, Shortest Job First (SJF), and several others. The Kubernetes (Greek: ‘κυβερνήτης’) scheduler implements a range of scoring functions such as node or pod affinity/anti-affinity, resources best-fit and worst-fit, required images locality, etc. which can be additionally weighted and combined into node’s score values (Lewis and Oppenheimer, 2017). As an interesting note – one of the functions (BalancedResourceAllocation routine) implemented in Kubernetes evaluates the balance of utilised resources (CPU and memory) on a scored node.
Monolithic schedulers are often plagued with a ‘head-of-queue’ blocking problem in which as a long job is awaiting a free node, the shorter jobs which follow are held. To partially counter this problem, the schedulers often implement ‘backfilling’ optimisation, where shorter jobs are allowed to execute while the long job is waiting. Perhaps the most widespread scheduler is Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) (Yoo et al., 2003). SLURM uses a best-fit algorithm which is based on either Hilbert curve scheduling or fat tree network topology; it can scale to thousands of CPU cores (Pascual, 2009). At the time of writing, the fastest supercomputer in the world is Sunway TaihuLight (Chinese: ‘神威·太湖之光’), which uses over 40k CPU processors, each of which contains 256 cores. Sunway TaihuLight’s workload in managed by SLURM (TOP500 Project, 2017).
The Fuxi (Chinese: ‘伏羲’) scheduler presents a unique strategy in that it matches newly-available resources against the backlog of tasks rather than matching tasks to available resources on nodes. This technique allowed Fuxi to achieve a very high utilisation of Cluster resources, namely 95% utilisation of memory and 91% utilisation of CPU. Fuxi has been supporting Alibaba’s workload since 2009, and it scales to ca. 5k nodes (Zhang et al., 2014).
While Cluster scheduler designs have generally moved towards more parallelised solutions, as demonstrated in the next subsection, centralised architecture is still the most common approach in High-Performance Computing. Approximately half the world’s supercomputers use SLURM as their workload manager, while Moab is currently deployed on about 40% of the top 10, top 25 and top 100 on the TOP500 list (TOP500 Project, 2017).
2.2. Concurrent Scheduling
Historically, monolithic schedulers were frequently built on the premise of supporting a single ‘killer-application’ (Barroso et al., 2003). However, the workload of the data centre has become more heterogeneous as systems and a modern Cluster system runs hundreds of unique programs with distinctive resource requirements and constraints. A single code base of centralised workload manager means that it is not easy to add a variety of specialised scheduling policies. Furthermore, as workload size is increased, the time to reach a scheduling decision is progressively limited. The result of this is a restriction in the selection of scheduling algorithms to less sophisticated ones, which affects the quality of allocations. To tackle those challenges, the Cluster schedulers evolved into more parallelised designs.
2.2.1. Statically Partitioned
The solution to the numerous policies and the lack of parallelism in central schedulers was to split Cluster into specialised partitions and manage them separately. Quincy (Isard et al., 2009), a scheduler managing workload of Microsoft’s Dryad, follows this approach.
The development of an application for Dryad is modelled as a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) model in which the developer defines an application dataflow model and supplies subroutines to be executed at specified graph vertices. The scheduling policies and tuning parameters are specified by adjusting weights and capacities on a graph data structure. The Quincy implements a Greedy strategy. In this approach, the scheduler assumes that the currently scheduled job is the only job running on a cluster and so always selects the best node available. Tasks are run by remote daemon services which periodically update the job manager about the vertex’s execution status. A vertex might be re-executed in case of failure. If any task has failed more than a configured number of times, the entire job is marked as failed (Isard et al., 2007).
Microsoft has built several frameworks on top of Dryad, such as COSMOS (Helland and Harris, 2011) which provided SQL-like language optimised for parallel execution. COSMOS was designed to support data-driven search and advertising within the Windows Live services owned by Microsoft, such as Bing, MSN and Hotmail. It analysed user behaviours in multiple contexts, such as what people searched for, what links they clicked, what sites they visited, the browsing order, and the ads they clicked on. Although the Dryad project had several preview releases, it was ultimately dropped when Microsoft shifted its focus to the development of Hadoop.
The main criticism of the static partitioning is inflexibility – the exclusive sets of machines in a Cluster are dedicated to certain types of workload. That might result in a part of scheduler being relatively idle, while other nodes are very active. This leads to the Cluster’s fragmentation and the suboptimal utilisation of available nodes since no machine sharing is allowed.
2.2.2. Two-level Hierarchy
The solution to the inflexibility of static partitioning was to introduce two-level architecture in which a Cluster is partitioned dynamically by a central coordinator. The actual task allocations take place at the second level of architecture in one of the specialised schedulers. The first two-level scheduler was Mesos (Hindman et al., 2011), developed at the University of California (Berkeley), and is now hosted in the Apache Software Foundation. Mesos was a foundation base for other Cluster systems such as Twitter’s Aurora (Aurora, 2018) and Marathon (Mesosphere, 2018).
Mesos introduces a two-level scheduling mechanism in which a centralised Mesos Master acts as a resource manager that dynamically allocates resources to different scheduler frameworks, for example Hadoop, Spark and Kafka, via Mesos Agents. Mesos Agents are deployed on cluster nodes and use Linux’s cgroups or Docker container (depending upon the environment) for resource isolation. Resources are distributed to the frameworks in the form of ‘offers’ which contain currently unused resources. Scheduling frameworks have autonomy in deciding which resources to accept and which tasks to run on them.
Mesos works most effectively when tasks are relatively small, short-lived and have a high resource churn rate, i.e. they relinquish resources more frequently. In the current version 1.4.1, only one scheduling framework can examine a resource offer at any given time. This resource is effectively locked for the duration of a scheduling decision, meaning that concurrency control is pessimistic. Several practical considerations for using Mesos in the production environment as well as best practices advice are presented in Campbell (2017).
Two-level schedulers offered a working solution to the lack of parallelisation found in central schedulers and the low efficiency of statically partitioned Clusters. Nevertheless, the mechanism used causes resources to remain locked while the resources offer is being examined by a specialised scheduler. This means the benefits from parallelisation are limited due to pessimistic locking. In addition, the schedulers do not coordinate between each other and must rely on a centralised coordinator to make them offers, which further restricts their visibility of the resources in a Cluster.
2.2.3. Shared State
To address the limited parallelism of the two-level scheduling design, the alternative approach taken by some organisations was to redesign schedulers’ architecture into several schedulers, all working concurrently. The schedulers work on a shared Cluster’s state information and manage their resources’ reservations using an optimistic concurrency control method. A sample of such systems includes: Microsoft’s Apollo (Boutin et al., 2014), Omega – the Google Borg’s spinoff (Schwarzkopf et al., 2013), HashiCorp’s Nomad (HashiCorp, 2018), and also Borg (Burns et al., 2016) itself which has been refactored from monolithic into parallel architecture after the experimentations with Omega.
By default, Nomad runs one scheduling worker per CPU core. Scheduling workers pick job submissions from the broker queue and then submit it to one of the three schedulers: a long-lived services scheduler, a short-lived batch jobs scheduler and a system scheduler, which is used to run internal maintenance routines. Additionally, Nomad can be extended to support custom schedulers. Schedulers process and generate an action plan, which constitutes a set of operations to create new allocations, or to evict and update existing ones (HashiCorp, 2018).
Microsoft’s Apollo design seems to be primarily tuned for high tasks churn, and at peak times is capable of handling more than 100k of scheduling requests per second on a ca. 20k nodes cluster. Apollo uses a set of per-job schedulers called Job Managers (JM) wherein a single job entity contains a multiplicity of tasks which are then scheduled and executed on computing nodes. Tasks are generally short-lived batch jobs (Boutin et al., 2014). Apollo has a centralised Resource Monitor (RM), while each node runs its own Process Node (PN) with its own queue of tasks. Each PN is responsible for local scheduling decisions and can independently reorder its job queue to allow smaller tasks to be executed immediately, while larger tasks wait for resources to become available. Additionally, PN computes a wait-time matrix based on its queue which publicises the future availability of the node’s resources. Scheduling decisions are made optimistically by JMs based on the shared cluster’s resource state, which is continuously retrieved and aggregated by RM. This design helps to avoid decisions which are suboptimal and conflicting were the architecture to be completely decentralised.
Furthermore, Apollo splits tasks into those which are regular and those which are opportunistic. Opportunistic tasks are used to fill resource gaps left by regular tasks. The system also prevents overloading the cluster by limiting the total number of regular tasks that can be run on a cluster. Apollo implements locality optimisation by taking into consideration the location of data for a given task. For example, the system will score nodes higher if the required files are already on the local drive as opposed to machines needing to download data (Boutin et al., 2014).
Historically, Omega was a spinoff from Google’s Borg scheduler. Despite the various optimisations acquired by Borg over the years, including internal parallelism and multi-threading, in order to address the issues of head-of-line blocking and scalability problems, Google decided to create an Omega scheduler from the ground up (Schwarzkopf et al., 2013). Omega introduced several innovations, such as storing the state of the cluster in a centralised Paxos-based store that was accessed by multiple components simultaneously. The eventual conflicts were resolved by optimistic locking concurrency control. This feature allowed Omega to run several schedulers at the same time and improve the scheduling throughput. Many of Omega’s innovations have since been folded into Borg (Burns et al., 2016).
Omega’s authors highlight the disadvantages of the shared state and parallel reservation of resources, namely: (i) the state of a node could have changed considerably when the allocation decision was being made, and it is no longer possible for this node to accept a job; (ii) two or more allocations to the same node could have conflicted and both scheduling decisions are nullified; and (iii) this strategy introduces significant difficulties when gang-scheduling a batch of jobs as (i) or (ii) are happening (Schwarzkopf et al., 2013).
In this research, special attention was given to Google’s Borg, one of the most advanced and published schedulers. Moreover, while other schedulers are designed to support either a high churn of short-term jobs, for example Microsoft’s Apollo (Boutin et al., 2014), Alibaba’s Fuxi (Zhang et al., 2014), or else a limited number of long-term services, such as Twitter’s Aurora (Aurora, 2018), Google’s engineers have created a system which supports a mixed workload. Borg has replaced two previous systems, Babysitter and the Global Work Queue, which were used to manage long-running services and batch jobs separately (Burns et al., 2016). Given the significance of Borg’s design for this research, it is discussed separately in section 4.
2.2.4. Decentralised Load Balancer
The research (Sliwko, 2018) proposes a new type of Cluster’s workload orchestration model in which the actual scheduling logic is processed on nodes themselves, which is a significant step towards completely decentralised Cluster orchestration. The cluster state is retrieved from a subnetwork of BAs, although this system does not rely on the accuracy of this information and uses it exclusively to retrieve an initial set of candidate nodes where a task could potentially run. The actual task to machine matching is performed between the nodes themselves. As such, this design avoids the pitfalls of the concurrent resource locking, which includes conflicting scheduling decisions and the non-current state of nodes’ information. Moreover, the decentralisation of the scheduling logic also lifts complexity restrictions on scheduling logic, meaning that a wider range of scheduling algorithms can be used, such as metaheuristic methods.
2.3. Big Data Schedulers
In taxonomy presented in this paper, Big Data schedulers are visualised as a separate branch from Cluster Schedulers. Although it could be argued that Big Data Schedulers belong to one of the Cluster schedulers designs discussed previously, this separation signifies their over-specialisation, and that only a very restricted set of operations is supported (Isard et al., 2007; Zaharia et al., 2010). The scheduling mechanisms are often intertwined with the programming language features, with Big Data frameworks often providing their own API (Zaharia et al., 2009; White, 2012) and indeed sometimes even their own custom programming language, as seen with Skywriting in CIEL (Murray et al., 2011).
Generally speaking, Big Data frameworks provide very fine-grained control over how data is accessed and processed over the cluster, such as Spark RDD objects persist operations or partitioners (Zaharia et al., 2012). Such a deep integration of scheduling logic with applications is a distinctive feature of Big Data technology. At the time of writing, Big Data is also the most active distributed computing research area, with new technologies, frameworks and algorithms being released on a regular basis.
Big Data is the term given to the storage and processing of any data sets so large and complex that they become unrealistic to process using traditional data processing applications based on relational database management systems. It depends on the individual organisation as to how much data is described as Big Data, but the following examples may be considered to get an idea of scale:
- The NYSE (The New York Stock Exchange) produces about 15 TB of new trade data per day (Singh, 2017);
- Facebook warehouse stores upwards of 300 PB of data, with an incoming daily rate of about 600 TB (Vagata and Wilfong, 2014);
- The Large Hadron Collider (Geneva, Switzerland) produces about fifteen petabytes of data per year (White, 2012).
As a result of a massive size of the stored and processed data, the central element of a Big Data framework is its distributed file system, such as Hadoop Distributed File System (Gog, 2012), Google File System (Ghemawat et al., 2003) and its successor Colossus (Corbett et al., 2013). The nodes in a Big Data cluster fulfil the dual purposes of storing the distributed file system parts, usually in a few replicas for fault-tolerance means, and also providing a parallel execution environment for system tasks. The speed difference between locally-accessed and remotely stored input data is very substantial, meaning that Big Data schedulers are very focused on providing ‘data locality’ which means running a given task on a node where input data are stored or are in the closest proximity to it.
The origins of the Big Data technology are in the ‘MapReduce’ programming model, which implements the concept of Google’s inverted search index. Developed in 2003 (Dean and Ghemawat, 2010) and later patented in 2010 (U.S. Patent 7,650,331), the Big Data design has evolved significantly since, and is presented in the subsections below.
MapReduce is the most widespread principle which has been adopted for processing large sets of data in parallel. The name MapReduce originally referred only to the Google’s proprietary technology, but the term is now broadly used to describe a wide range of software, such as Hadoop, CouchDB, Infinispan and MongoDB. The key features of MapReduce are its scalability and fine-grained fault-tolerance. The original thinking behind MapReduce was inspired by the ‘map’ and ‘reduce’ operations present in Lisp and other functional programming languages (Dean and Ghemawat, 2010):
- ‘Map’ is an operation used in the first step of computation and is applied to all available data that performs the filtering and transforming of all key-value pairs from the input data set. The ‘map’ operation is executed in parallel on multiple machines on a distributed file system. Each ‘map’ task can be restarted individually and a failure in the middle of a multi-hour execution does not require restarting the whole job from scratch.
- The ‘Reduce’ operation is executed after ‘map’ operations complete. It performs finalising operations, such as counting the number of rows matching specified conditions and yielding fields frequencies. The ‘Reduce’ operation is fed using a stream iterator, thereby allowing the framework to process list of items one at the time, thus ensuring that the machine memory is not overloaded (Dean and Ghemawat, 2010; Gog, 2012).
Following the development of the MapReduce concept, Yahoo! engineers began the Open Source project Hadoop. In February 2008, Yahoo! announced that its production search index was being generated by a 10k-core Hadoop cluster (White, 2012). Subsequently, many other major Internet companies, including Facebook, LinkedIn, Amazon and Last.fm, joined the project and deployed it within their architectures. Hadoop is currently hosted in the Apache Software Foundation as an Open Source project.
As in Google’s original MapReduce, Hadoop’s users submit jobs which consist of ‘map’ and ‘reduce’ operation implementations. Hadoop splits each job into multiple ‘map’ and ‘reduce’ tasks, which subsequently process each block of input data, typically 64MB or 128MB (Gog, 2012). Hadoop’s scheduler allocates a ‘map’ task to the closest possible node to the input data required – so-called ‘data locality’ optimisation. In so doing, the following allocation order is used: the same node, the same rack and finally a remote rack (Zaharia et al., 2009). To further improve performance, the Hadoop framework uses ‘backup tasks’ in which a speculative copy of a task is run on a separate machine in order to finish the computation faster. If the first node is available but behaving poorly, it is known as a ‘straggler’, with the result that the job is as slow as the misbehaving task. This behaviour can occur for many reasons, such as faulty hardware or misconfiguration. Google estimated that using ‘backup tasks’ could improve job response times by 44% (Dean and Ghemawat, 2010).
At the time of writing, Hadoop comes with a selection of schedulers, as outlined below:
- ‘FIFO Scheduler’ is a default scheduling system in which the user jobs are scheduled using a queue with five priority levels. Typically, jobs use the whole cluster, so they must wait their turn. When another job scheduler chooses the next job to run, it selects jobs with the highest priority, resulting in low-priority jobs being endlessly delayed (Zaharia et al., 2009; White, 2012).
- ‘Fair Scheduler’ is part of the cluster management technology Yet Another Resource Negotiator (YARN) (Vavilapalli et al., 2013), which replaced the original Hadoop engine in 2012. In Fair Scheduler, each user has their own pool of jobs and the system focuses on giving each user a proportional share of cluster resources over time. The scheduler uses a version of ‘max-min fairness’ (Bonald et al., 2006) with minimum capacity guarantees that are specified as the number of ‘map’ and ‘reduce’ task slots to allocate tasks across users’ job pools. When one pool is idle, and the minimum share of the tasks slots is not being used, other pools can use its available task slots.
- ‘Capacity Scheduler’ is the second scheduler introduced within the YARN framework. In essence, this can be seen as a number of separate MapReduce engines with FCFS scheduling for each user or organisation. Those queues can be hierarchical, with a queue having children queues, and with each queue being allocated task slots capacity which can be divided into ‘map’ and ‘reduce’ tasks. Task slots allocation between queues is similar to the sharing mechanism between pools found in Fair Scheduler (White, 2012).
The main criticism of MapReduce is the acyclic dataflow programming model. The stateless ‘map’ task must be followed by a stateless ‘reduce’ task, which is then executed by the MapReduce engine. This model makes it challenging to repeatedly access the same dataset, a common action during the execution of iterative algorithms (Zaharia et al., 2009).
2.3.2. Iterative Computations
Following the success of Apache Hadoop, a number of alternative designs were created to address Hadoop’s suboptimal performance when running iterative MapReduce jobs. Examples of such systems include HaLoop (Bu et al., 2010) and Spark (Zaharia et al., 2010).
HaLoop has been developed on top of Hadoop, with various caching mechanisms and optimisations added, and making the framework loop-aware, for example by adding programming support for iterative application and storing the output data on the local disk. Additionally, HaLoop’s scheduler keeps a record of every data block processed by each task on physical machines, and tries to schedule subsequent tasks taking inter-iteration locality into account. This feature helps to minimise costly remote data retrieval, meaning that tasks can use data cached on a local machine (Bu et al., 2010; Gog, 2012).
Similar to HaLoop, Spark’s authors noted a suboptimal performance of iterative MapReduce jobs in the Hadoop framework. In certain kinds of application, such as iterative Machine Learning algorithms and interactive data analysis tools, the same data are repeatedly accessed in multiple steps and then discarded; therefore, it does not make sense to send it back and forward to central node. In such scenarios Spark will outperform Hadoop (Zaharia et al., 2012).
Spark is built on top of HDSF, but it does not follow the two-stage model of Hadoop. Instead, it introduces resilient distributed datasets (RDD) and parallel operations on these datasets (Gog, 2012):
- ‘reduce’ – combines dataset elements using a provided function;
- ‘collect’ – sends all the elements of the dataset to the user program;
- ‘foreach’ – applies a provided function onto every element of a dataset.
Spark provides two types of shared variables:
- ‘accumulators’ – variables onto each worker can apply associative operations, meaning that they are efficiently supported in parallel;
- ‘broadcast variables’ – sent once to every node, with nodes then keeping a read-only copy of those variables (Zecevic, 2016).
The Spark job scheduler implementation is conceptually similar to that of Dryad’s Quincy. However, it considers which partitions of RDD are available in the memory. The framework then re-computes missing partitions, and tasks are sent to the closest possible node to the input data required (Zaharia et al., 2012).
Another interesting feature implemented in Spark is the concept of ‘delayed scheduling’. In situations when a head-of-line job that should be scheduled next cannot launch a local task, Spark’s scheduler delays the task execution, and lets other jobs start their tasks instead. However, if the job has been skipped long enough, typically up to ten seconds, it launches a non-local task. Since a typical Spark workload consists of short tasks, meaning that it has a high task slots churn, tasks have a higher chance of being executed locally. This feature helps to achieve almost optimal ‘data locality’ with a minimal impact on fairness, and the cluster throughput can be almost doubled, as shown in an analysis performed on Facebook’s workload traces (Zaharia et al., 2010).
2.3.3. Distributed Stream Processing
The core concept behind distributed stream processing engines is the processing of incoming data items in real time by modelling a data flow in which there are several stages which can be processed in parallel. Other techniques include splitting the data stream into multiple sub-streams, and redirecting them into a set of networked nodes (Liu and Buyya, 2017).
Inspired by Microsoft’s research into DAG models (Isard et al., 2009), Apache Storm (Storm) is a distributed stream processing engine used by Twitter following extensive development (Toshniwal et al., 2014). Its initial release was 17 September 2011, and by September 2014 it had become open-source and an Apache Top-Level Project.
The defined topology acts as a distributed data transformation pipeline. The programs in Storm are designed as a topology in the shape of DAG, consisting of ‘spouts’ and ‘bolts’:
- ‘Spouts’ read the data from external sources and emit them into the topology as a stream of ‘tuples’. This structure is accompanied by a schema which defines the names of the tuples’ fields. Tuples can contain primitive values such as integers, longs, shorts, bytes, strings, doubles, floats, booleans, and byte arrays. Additionally, custom serialisers can be defined to interpret this data.
- The processing stages of a stream are defined in ‘bolts’ which can perform data manipulation, filtering, aggregations, joins, and so on. Bolts can also constitute more complex transforming structures that require multiple steps (thus, multiple bolts). The bolts can communicate with external applications such as databases and Kafka queues (Toshniwal et al., 2014).
In comparison to MapReduce and iterative algorithms introduced in the subsections above, Storm topologies, once created, run indefinitely until killed. Given this, the inefficient scattering of application’s tasks among Cluster nodes has a lasting impact on performance. Storm’s default scheduler implements a Round Robin strategy and for resource allocation purposes, Storm assumes that every worker is homogenous. This design results in frequent resource over-allocation and inefficient use of inter-system communications (Kulkarni et al, 2018). To remedy this phenomenon, more complex solutions are proposed such as D-Storm (Liu and Buyya, 2017). D-Storm’s scheduling strategy is based on a metaheuristic algorithm Greedy, which also monitors the volume of the incoming workload and is resource-aware.
Typical examples of Storm’s usage include:
- processing a stream of new data and updating databases in real time, e.g. in trading systems wherein data accuracy is crucial;
- continuously querying and forwarding the results to clients in real time, e.g. streaming trending topics on Twitter into browsers, and
- a parallelisation of computing-intensive query on the fly, i.e. a distributed Remote Procedure Call (RPC) wherein a large number of sets are being probed (Marz, 2011).
Storm has gained widespread popularity and is being used by companies such as Groupon, Yahoo!, Spotify, Verisign, Alibaba, Baidu, Yelp, and many more. A comprehensive list of users is available at the storm.apache.org website.
At the time of writing, Storm is being replaced at Twitter by newer distributed stream processing engine – Heron (Kulkarni et al, 2018) which continues the DAG model approach, but focuses on various architectural improvements such as reduced overhead, testability and easier access to debug data.
3. Google’s Borg
To support its operations, Google utilises a high number of data centres around the world, which at the time of writing number sixteen. Borg admits, schedules, starts, restarts and monitors the full range of applications run by Google. Borg users are Google developers and system administrators, and users submit their workload in the form of jobs. A job may consist of one of more tasks that all run the same program (Burns et al., 2016).
3.1. Design Concepts
The central module of the Borg architecture is BorgMaster, which maintains an in-memory copy of most of the state of the cell. This state is also saved in a distributed Paxos-based store (Lamport, 1998). While BorgMaster is logically a single process, it is replicated five times in order to improve fault-tolerance. The main design priority of Borg was resilience rather than performance. Google services are seen as very durable and reliable, the result of multi-tier architecture, where no component is a single point of failure exists. Current allocations of tasks are saved to Paxos-based storage, and the system can recover even if all five BorgMaster instances fail. Each cell in the Google Cluster in managed by a single BorgMaster controller. Each machine in a cell runs BorgLet, an agent process responsible for starting and stopping tasks and also restarting them should they fail. BorgLet manages local resources by adjusting local OS kernel settings and reporting the state of its node to the BorgMaster and other monitoring systems.
The Borg system offers extensive options to control and shape its workload, including priority bands for tasks (i.e. monitoring, production, batch, and best effort), resources quota and admission control. Higher priority tasks can pre-empt locally-running tasks in order to obtain required resources. The exception is made for production tasks which cannot be pre-empted. Resource quotas are part of admission control and are expressed as a resource vector at a given priority, for a period of time (usually months). Jobs with insufficient quotas are rejected immediately upon submission. Production jobs are limited to actual resources available to BorgMaster in a given cell. The Borg system also exposes a web-based interface called Sigma, which displays the state of all users’ jobs, shows details of their execution history and, if the job has not been scheduled, also provides a ‘why pending?’ annotation where there is guidance about how to modify the job’s resource requests to better fit the cell (Verma et al., 2015).
The dynamic nature of the Borg system means that tasks might be started, stopped and then rescheduled on an alternative node. Google engineers have created the concept of a static Borg Name Service (BNS) which is used to identify a task run within a cell and to retrieve its endpoint address. The BNS address is predominantly used by load balancers to transparently redirect RPC calls to a given task’s endpoints. Meanwhile, the Borg’s resource reclamation mechanisms help to reclaim under-utilised resources from cell nodes for non-production tasks. Whilst in theory users may request high resource quotas for their tasks, in practice they are rarely fully utilised in a continuous manner; rather, they have peak times of day or are used in this way when coping with a denial-of-service attack. BorgMaster has routines that estimate resource usage levels for a task and reclaim the rest for low-priority jobs from the batch or the best effort bands (Verma et al., 2015).
3.2. Jobs Schedulers
Early versions of Borg had a simple, synchronous loop that accepted jobs requests and evaluated on which node to execute them. The current design of Borg deploys several schedulers working in parallel – the scheduler instances use a share state of the available resources, but the resource offers are not locked during scheduling decisions (optimistic concurrency control). In case of conflict, when two or more schedulers allocate jobs to the same resources, all the jobs involved are returned to the jobs queue (Schwarzkopf et al., 2013).
When allocating a task, Borg’s scheduler scores a set of available nodes and selects the most feasible machine for this task. Initially, Borg implemented a variation of Enhanced Parallel Virtual Machine algorithm (E-PVM) (Amir et al., 2000) for calculating the task allocation score. Although this resulted in the fair distribution of tasks across nodes, it also resulted in increased fragmentation and later difficulties when fitting large jobs which required the most of the node’s resources or even the whole node itself. An opposite to the E-PVM approach is a best-fit strategy, which, in turn, packs tasks very tightly. The best-fit approach may result in the excessive pre-empting of other tasks running on the same node, especially when the resources required are miscalculated by the user, or when the application has frequent load spikes. The current model used by Borg’s scheduler is a hybrid approach that tries to reduce resource usage gaps (Verma et al., 2015).
Borg also takes advantage of resources pre-allocation using ‘allocs’ (short for allocation). Allocs can be used to pre-allocate resources for future tasks in order to retain resources between restarting a task or to gather class-equivalent or related tasks, such as web applications and associated log-saver tasks, onto the same machine. If an alloc is moved to another machine, its tasks are also rescheduled.
One point to note is that, similar to MetaCentrum users (Klusáček and Rudová, 2010), Google’s users tend to overestimate the memory resources needed to complete their jobs, in order to prevent jobs being killed due to exceeding the allocated memory. In over 90% of cases, users tend to overestimate the amount of resources required, wasting in some cases close to 98% of the requested resource (Moreno et al., 2013; Ray et al., 2017).
Over the years, Borg design has acquired a number of optimisations, namely:
- Score caching – checking the node’s feasibility and scoring it is a computation-expensive process. Therefore, scores for nodes are cached and small differences in the required resources are ignored;
- Equivalence classes – submitted jobs often consist of a number of tasks which use the same binary and which have identical requirements. Borg’s scheduler considers such a group of tasks to be in the same equivalence class. It evaluates only one task per equivalence class against a set of nodes, and later reuses this score for each task from this group;
- Relaxed randomisation – instead of evaluating a task against all available nodes, Borg examines machines in random order until it finds enough feasible nodes. It then selects the highest scoring node in this set.
While the Borg architecture remains heavily centralised, this approach does seem to be successful. Whilst this eliminates head-of-line job blocking problems and offers better scalability, it also generates additional overheads for solving resource collisions. Nevertheless, the benefits from better scalability often outweigh the incurred additional computation costs which arise when scalability targets are achieved (Schwarzkopf et al., 2013).
4. Summary and Conclusions
This paper has presented a taxonomy of available schedulers, ranging from early implementations to modern versions. Aside from optimising throughput, different class schedulers have evolved to solve different problems. For example, while OS schedulers maximise responsiveness, Cluster schedulers focus on scalability, provide support a wide range of unique (often legacy) applications, and maintain fairness. Big Data schedulers are specialised to solve issues accompanying operations on large datasets and their scheduling mechanisms are often extensively intertwined with programming language features.
OS schedulers have evolved in such a way that their focus is on maximising responsiveness while still providing good performance. Interactive processes which sleep more often should be allocated time-slices more frequently, while background processes should be allocated longer, but less frequent execution times. CPU switches between processes extremely rapidly which is why modern OS scheduling algorithms were designed with a very low overhead (Wong et al., 2008; Pinel et al., 2011). The majority of end-users for this class of schedulers are non-technical. As such, those schedulers usually have a minimum set of configuration parameters (Groves et al., 2009).
OS scheduling was previously deemed to be a solved problem (Torvalds, 2001), but the introduction and popularisation of multi-core processors by Intel (Intel Core™2 Duo) and AMD (AMD Phenom™ II) in the early 2000s enabled applications to execute in parallel. This mean that scheduling algorithms needed to be re-implemented in order to once again be efficient. Modern OS schedulers also consider NUMA properties when deciding which CPU core the task will be allocated to. Furthermore, the most recent research explores the potential application of dynamic voltage and frequency scaling technology in scheduling to minimise power consumption by CPU cores (Sarood et al., 2012; Padoin et al., 2014). It is not a trivial matter to build a good universal solution which caters to the complexities of modern hardware; therefore, it would be reasonable to develop the modular scheduler architecture suggested in (Lozi et al., 2016).
Cluster schedulers have a difficult mission in ensuring ‘fairness’, that is, sharing cluster resources proportionally to every user while maintaining stable throughput in a very dynamic environment consisting of variety of applications. Cluster systems tend to allow administrators to implement complex resource sharing policies with multiple input parameters (Adaptive Computing, 2002). Cluster systems implement extensive fault-tolerance strategies and sometimes also focus on minimising power consumption (Lang and Patel, 2010). Surprisingly, the most popular approach to scheduling is a simple FCFS strategy with variants of backfilling. However, due to the rapidly increasing cluster size, the current research focuses on parallelisation, as seen with systems such as Google’s Borg and Microsoft‘s Apollo.
Big Data systems are still rapidly developing. Nodes in Big Data systems fulfil the dual purposes of storing distributed file system parts and providing a parallel execution environment for system tasks. Big Data schedulers inherit their general design from cluster system’s jobs schedulers. However, they are usually much more specialised for the purpose of the framework and are also intertwined with the programming language features. Big Data schedulers are often focused on ‘locality optimisation’ or running a given task on a node where input data is stored or in the closest proximity to it.
The design of modern scheduling strategies and algorithms is a challenging and evolving field of study. While early implementations were often based on simplistic approaches, such as a CS, it is the case that modern solutions use complex scheduling schemas. Moreover, the literature frequently mentions the need for a modular scheduler architecture (Vavilapalli et al., 2013; Lozi et al., 2016) which could customise scheduling strategies to hardware configuration or applications.
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